How to build a stillThe condenser
The water cooled copper coils are the traditional set up of a condenser. The counter flow condenser is of a more recent date.
The basic concept of a cooler in the old days was to lead the vapor through a barrel, filled with "cold" water. In order to have an efficient condensation, the pipe had to pass through as much as water as possible. For this reason the pipe had a coil shape. The major disadvantage of this method was that one needed to replace the water many times during the distillation process. The temperature of the cooling water would increase very rapidly and therefore loose it's cooling capacity.
I have made my initial still using this method, but I was convinced that this was not the best method as it requires constant attention as the water around the coil looses it's cooling capacity and needs to be partially replaced.
The construction of a counter flow condenser for my pot still started already after two distillation runs.....